Attributed to Abraham Janssens I – The Sibyl Agrippina

This is my magnum opus.

Until I took on this project in the early 90s (started originally by musician Jeff Burke)  no one had done a definitive bibliography covering the study of  blacks in Europe and the world as Europeans knew it in medieval and Early Modern period.

The internet was not in play when this project was started.  This research was done entirely by hand, with me looking through every academic journal available at Robarts Library at the University of Toronto, one by one. The University of Berne saw fit to use some of my work as part of their Shakespeare curriculum back in late 90s in the advent of Google.

I stopped maintaining this project in 2008, updating it from time to time. But in 2019, after many years, I have returned to this project now that the academic world has finally caught up *wry smile*. Remember that this continues to be a work in progress as I am now updating with web links to pdfs and publishers when available.

If there is an academic resource that I am missing please let me know:

ms [dot] kmaitland [@] gmail [dot] com

*the bibliography is in the following subject order: Europe, Asia, Africa, Central Asia/Middle East, Literature.

**To return to the Ines de Freitas page, click here


Bartels, Emily C. “Too Many Blackamoors: Deportation, Discrimination, and Elizabeth I“. SEL Studies in English Literature 1500-1900, Volume 46, Number 2, Spring 2006

Bennet, Norman. Africa and Europe from Roman Times. New York: Africana Pub. Co., 1975.

Blakely, Allison. Russia and the Negro: blacks in Russian History and thought. Washington, D.C.: Howard University Press, 1986.

Cortés Alonso, Vicenta. “La población negra de Palos de la Frontera (1568-1579).” in Actas y Memorias del XXXVI Congreso Internacional de Americanistas, Sevilla, 1964, 3:609-18, Seville, 1966.

Cortés Alonso, Vicenta. “Procedencia de los esclavos negros en Valencia (1482-1516).”Revista española de Antropología Americana, vol. 7 (1972)

Debrunner, Hans. Presence and Prestige: Africans in Europe, and history of Africans in Europe before 1918. Basel: Basler Afrika Bibiliographiem, 1979.

Earle, T.F. and K.J.P Lowe ed. Black Africans in Renaissance Europe. Cambridge University Press, 2005 (

Ellis, David. “Slavery & Freedom in the Early Modern World.” in Terms of labour: Slavery, Serfdom, and Free Labour ed. Stanley L. Engerman. Stanford California: Standford University Press, 1999.

Epstein, Steven. Speaking in Slavery: Color, Ethnicity, and Human Bondage in Italy. Cornell University Press, 2018.

Fryer, Peter. Staying Power: the History of black people in Britain. London: Pluto, 1984.

Gioffre, Domenico. Il Mercato degli shiavi a Genova nel secolo XV. Geneva: Fratelli Bozzi, 1971.

Gual Camarena, Miguel. “Una cofradía de negros libertos en el siglo XV.” Estudios de la Edad media en la Corona de Aragón, vol. 5 (1952)

Habib, Imtiaz. Black Lives in the English Archives, 1500–1677:Imprints of the Invisible. Ashgate Press. 2008. (Google Books: Selected Pages)

Hair, P. E. H. “Black African Slaves at Valencia, 1482-1516: An Onamastic Inquiry.” History in Africa: a Journal of Method, vol. 7 (1980).

Hall, Kim F. “Beauty and the Beast of Whiteness: Teaching Race and Gender.” Shakespeare Quarterly, vol. 47 #4 (Winter 1996)

Hall, Kim F. Things of darkness: economic of race and gender in early modern England. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1995.

Hall, Kim F. “Reading What Isn’t There: ‘Black’ Studies in Early Modern England?”  Stanford Humanities Re/View 3:1 (1993):23-33.

Hall, Kim F. “Object Into Object?: Some Thoughts on the Presence of Black Women in Early Modern Culture” In Early Modern Visual Culture: Representation, Race, and Empire in Renaissance England, ed. Peter Erickson and Clark Hulse. (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2000: 346-79.

Hall, Kim F. “Race and Gender” in Attending to Women in Early Modern England. Proc. of a Conference on Women in Early Modern England.  Center for Renaissance and Baroque Studies, University of Maryland, ed. Adele F. Seeff and Betty Travitsky (Newark: University of Delaware Press, 1994): 284-85.

Hall, Kim F. “Sexual Politics and Cultural Identity in The Masque of Blackness,” in The Performance of Power: Theatrical Discourse and Politics, ed. Sue-Ellen Case and Jenelle Reinelt (Iowa: University of Iowa Press, 1991): 3-18.

Hondius, Dienke. “Black Africans in Seventeenth-Century Amsterdam”. Renaissance and Reformation / Renaissance et Réforme, 2008, no. 1. CRRS, Toronto, Canada. 

Hunwick, J.O. “Black Slaves in the Mediterranean World: introduction to a Neglected Aspect of the African Diaspora”. in Slavery and Abolition: journal of comparative studies vol. #13, 1992.

Langdon, Gabrielle. “Pontormo and Medici Lineages: Maria Salviati, Alessandro Giulia and Giulio de’Medici.” RACAR, vol. XIX, #1-2 (1992)

Lucchina, Enrica. La merce umana: schiavitu e riscatto dei liguri nel Seicento. Roma: Bonacci, 1990.

Lindow, John. “Supernatural Others and Ethnic Others: a millennium of World View.” Scandinavian Studies, vol. 67 #1 (Winter 1995).

Mark, Peter. African in European Eyes: the portrayal of Black Africa in 14th & 15th Century Europe. Syracuse, NY: Maxwell School of Citizenship & Public affairs, Syracuse University, 1974.

Mielke, Andreas. Nigra sum et formosa: Afrikanerinnen in der deutschen Literatur de Mittelalters: Texte und Kontexte zum bild des Afrikeners inder literarischen Imagologie. Stuttgart: Helfant Ed., 1992.

Peabody, Sue. “Race, Slavery and the Law in Early Modern France.” The Historian vol. 56 #3 (Spring 1994)

Peabody, Sue. “There Are No Slaves in France”: The Political Culture of Race and Slavery in the Ancien Regime. Oxford University Press, 1996.

Pike, Ruth. “Sevillian Society in the Sixteenth Century: Slaves and Freedmen.” Hispanic American Historical Review, vol. 47 (1967).

Piedra, Jose. “The Black Stud’s Spanish Birth.” Callaloo, vol. 16 #4 (Autumn 1993).

Piedra, Jose. “In Search of the Black Stud.” in Premodern Sexualities. ed. Louise Fradenburg and Carla Freccero. New York: Routledge, 1996.

Salkeld, Duncan. “Black Luce and the ‘curtizans’ of Shakespeare’s London.” Signatures 2 (Winter 2000)

Saunders, A.C. de CM. A social history of black slaves in freedmen in Portugal, 1441-1555. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982.

Scobie, Edward. Black Britannia: a history of blacks in Britain. Chicago: Johnson Publishing Co., 1972.

Seng, Yvonne J. “Fugitives and Factotums: Slaves in the Early sixteenth-century Istanbul.” in Journal of Economic and Social History in the Orient, vol. 39 #2 (May 1996)

Shyllon, Folarin Olawale. Black People in Britain, 1553-1833. London: Published for the Institute of Race Relations by Oxford University Press, 1977.

Smith, Robert. “In search of Carpaccio’s African Gondolier.” Italian Studies, vol. 34, 1979.

Teixeira da Mota, A. “Entrée d’esclaves noirs à Valence (1445-1482): Le remplacement de la voie saharienne par la voie atlantique.” Revue française d’histoire d’outremer, vol. 66 #1-2.

Van Sertima, Ivan. African presence in early Europe. New Brunswick, N.J.: Tranaction Books, 1985.

Verkerek, Dorothy Hoogland. “Black Servant, Black Demon: Color Ideology in the Ashburnham Pentateuch.” Journal of Medieval and Early Modern Studies 31:1, Winter 2001.

Walvin, James. Making the Black Atlantic: Britain and the African Diaspora. London: Cassell, 2000.

Wettinger, Godfrey. Black African slaves in Malta. Mediterranean seascapes : proceedings of an International Conference held in Malta in conjunction with Euromed Heritage II, Navigation du Savoir Project (Valletta, 2004)


Lockley, Thomas and Geoffrey Girard. African Samurai: The True Story of Yasuke, a Legendary Black Warrior in Feudal Japan. Hanover Square Press, 2019.

Scott, William Henry. Slavery in the Spanish Philippines. Manilla: De La Salle University Press, 1991.

Talib, Y. “The African Diaspora in Asia.” in General History of Africa. Unesco, 1988.

Wyatt, Don J. The Blacks of Premodern China. Pennsylvania USA: Penn Press, 2009.


Anene, J. C. “Liaison and Competition between Land and Sea Routes in International Trade from the Fifteenth Century: The Central Sudan and North Africa.” in Les grandes voies maritimes dans le monde, XVe-XIXe siècles (Colloque international d’histoire maritime, 7th, Vienna, 1965), edited by Michel Mollat, 1965.

Austen, Ralph A. “The Trans-Saharan Slave Trade: A tentative Census.” in The Uncommon Market: Essays in the Economic History of the Atlantic Slave Trade, edited by Henry Gemery and Jan S. Hogendorn, New York, 1979.

Belcher, Wendy Laura. Sisters Debating the Jesuits: The Role of African Women in Defeating Portuguese Proto-Colonialism in Seventeenth-Century Abyssinia. Northeast African Studies, Vol. 13, No. 1 (2013), pp. 121-166

Bovill, E.W. The Golden Trade of the Moors. 2nd ed. London, 1970.

Brett, Michel. “Ifriqiya as a market for Saharan Trade from the Tenth to the Twelfth A.D.” Journal of African History vol. 10 (1969)

Jennings, Ronald. “Black Slaves and Free Slaves in Ottoman Cyprus 1590-1640.” in Journal of Economic and Social History in the Orient vol. 30 #3, (1987).

Lev, Yaacov. “Army, Regime, and Society in Fatimid Egypt.” in International Journal of Middle East Studies, vol. 19 #3 (1987)

Savage, E. “Berbers and Blacks: Ibadi Slave Traffic in Eighth-Century North Africa.” in Journal of African History vol. 33 (1992)

Van Sertima, Ivan. ed. Golden Age of the Moor. New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction Publishers, 1992.

Central Asia/Middle East

Bacharach, Jere L. “African Military Slaves in the Medieval Middle East: the Cases of Iraq (869-(55) and Egypt (828-1171).” International Journal of Middle East Studies vol. 13 #4 (1981)

Furlonge, Nigel D. “Revisting the Zanj and RE-Visioning Revolt: Complexities of the Zanj Conflict (868-883 AD.” Negro History Bulletin (December 1999).

Lewis, Bernard. Race and slavery in the Middle East : an historical enquiry. New York ; Oxford Oxford University Press 1992

Perry, Craig.


The Image of the Black in Western Art. Fribourg, Office du livre: distributed by Harvard University Press, 1979.

Bartels, Emily C. “Making more of the Moor: Aaron, Othello and Renaissance refashionings of race”. Shakespeare Quarterly, vol. 41 (Winter 1990)

Bartels, Emily C. Speaking of the Moor: From “Alcavar” to “Othello”. University of Pennsylvania Press, 2008.

Barthelemy, Anthony Gerard. Black face, maligned race: the representation of blacks in English drama from Shakespeare to Southerne. Baton Rouge: Louisana State University Press, 1987.

Callaghan, Dympna. Shakespeare without Women: Representing gender and race on the Renaissance stage. London: Routledge, 1999.

Duncan Salkeld, Duncan. “Black Luce and the ‘curtizans’ of Shakespeare’s London.” Signatures 2 (Winter 2000)

Erickson, Peter. “Invisibility Speaks: Servants and Portraits in Early Modern Visual Culture.” Journal for Early Modern Cultural Studies (Volume 9, Number 1, Spring/Summer 2009, pp. 23-61)

Erickson, Peter and Clark Hulse, ed. Early Modern Visual Culture: Representation, Race, Empire in Renaissance England. University of Pennsylvania Press.2000.

Habib, Imtiaz.  Shakespeare and Race: Postcolonial Praxis in the Early Modern Period. New York: University Press of America, 2000.

Hall, Kim F. “Beauty and the Beast of Whiteness: Teaching Race and Gender.” Shakespeare Quarterly, vol. 47 #4 (Winter 1996)

Hall, Kim F. “Early Modern Women Writing Race,” (with Gwynne Kennedy) in Teaching Tudor and Stuart Women Writers (Options for Teaching), ed. Margaret Hannay and Suzanne Woods. (MLA Publications: 2000): 235-39.

Hall, Kim F. “’Extravagant Viciousness’: Slavery and Gluttony in the Works of Thomas Tryon” in Writing Race in the Atlantic World, ed. Philip Beidler and Gary Tayor. (New York: St. Martin’s/Palgrave Press, 2005):  93-112.

Hall, Kim F. ” ‘I rather would wish to be a blackamoor’: Race, Rank and Beauty in Lady Mary Wroth’s Urania,” in Women, ‘Race,’ and Writing in Early Modern England, ed. Margo Hendricks and Patricia Parker (New York and London: Routledge Press, 1994): 178-194.

Hall, Kim F.“Othello and the Problem of Race” in Blackwell Companions to Shakespeare: The Tragedies, ed. Richard Dutton and Jean Howard.  (London: Blackwell, 2003): 357-74.

Hall, Kim F.”‘Troubling Doubles’: Apes, Africans and Blackface in Mr. Moore’s Revels” in Race, Ethnicity and Power in the Renaissance, ed. Joyce Green MacDonald  (Totowa, NJ: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 1997): 120-142.

Hendricks, Margo. “‘Obscured by dreams’: Race, Empire and Shakespeare’s A Midsummer Night’s Dream.” Shakespeare Quarterly, vol. 47 #1, (spring 1996)

Jones, Eldred. Othello’s Countrymen: the Africa in English Renaissance Drama. London: Oxford University Press, 1965.

Slights, Camille Wells. “Slaves and Subjects in Othello.” Shakespeare Quarterly, vol. 48 #4, (winter 1997)

Smith, Ian. “Barbarian Errors: Performing Race in Early Modern England.” Shakespeare Quarterly, vol. 49 #2 (Summer 1998)

Tokson, Elliot H. The popular image of the black man in English drama, 1550-1688. Boston: G.K. Hall, 1982.

Vaughan, Alden T. “Before Othello: Elizabethan representations of Sub-Saharan Africans”. The William & Mary Quarterly, (January 1997)

White, Jeanette S. “‘Is black so base a hue?’: Shakespeare’s Aaron and the politics and poetics of race”. in CLA  Journal, vol. 40 (March 1997)

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